Chess games can be played without a chess clock.
When games are played with a chess clock, then we ask “What is the time control?” … That means: How much time do we have to play how many moves?
Here are some well-known names for the various speeds of playing chess.

Classic chess is the slowest time control, where the finest chess games are played. The time and number of moves can vary. For example, at the Sinquefield Cup 2022 tournament (in the city of St. Louis, USA), the time control was 90 minutes for the first 40 moves, and then 30 minutes for the rest of the game, with a 30-second increment throughout. A 30-second increment means that 30 seconds are added to the clock of each player on every move.

Wikipedia tells us about the faster time controls:

Rapid (or Quick)
Rapid (or Quick) gives us 10 to 60 minutes per player, sometimes with a small time increment per move (e.g. 10 seconds).

A Blitz game gives 3 to 5 minutes per side. Usually sudden death (no increment), but may also be played with a small increment. More recently due to the influx of digital clocks, 3 minutes with a 2 second add is also preferred.

Bullet games are 2-3 minutes per side. The time add for this setting is 2 minutes with a 1 second add or 1 minute with a 2 second add, respectively. The term below, “Lightning”, can also be applied to this variant.

Lightning is a term used for either Blitz or Bullet chess, and is a general term for extremely fast chess. It can also refer to games with a fixed time (e.g. ten seconds) for each move. This also can be used for 1 minute games.

Armageddon is a single game guaranteed to produce a result, because Black has draw odds (that is, for Black, a draw is equal to a victory). To compensate, White has more time on the clock. Common times are 6 minutes for white and 5 for black, or 5 minutes for white and 4 for black. This can also be played with a small increment. This is also known as “time odds” and it is used in various tie breaks for quick tournaments.